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Juros do cartão de crédito rotativo estão mais altos


As concessões do rotativo do cartão de crédito representaram cerca de 10% dos empréstimos liberados pelas instituições financeiras, em junho. Clientes devem ficar atentos à taxa de juros desse tipo de crédito, que subiu, em junho para quem que paga em dia pelo menos o mínimo da fatura, após entrar em vigor a regra que proíbe cobrar juros diferentes para adimplentes e inadimplentes.

Se for considerada outra modalidade com taxa de juros alta, o cheque especial, sobe para 30,5% o percentual das concessões dos bancos, para pessoas físicas no crédito rotativo (cartão de crédito e cheque especial), em junho. “É um volume muito grande em linhas tão caras”, disse o diretor de Economia da Associação Nacional dos Executivos de Finanças, Administração e Contabilidade (Anefac), Miguel de Oliveira.

Para Oliveira, o uso dessas modalidades de crédito indica que o endividamento das famílias ainda está alto. “São linhas mais fáceis, pré-aprovadas. Os consumidores continuam usando mal o cartão e os bancos cobram taxas muito altas. Muita gente não olha a taxa de juros e isso custa muito caro”, destacou.

A atenção tem que ser redobrada no caso do rotativo oferecido por financeiras ou por lojas, que costumam cobrar juros mais altos no rotativo. De acordo com ranking do Banco Central (BC), o custo médio do rotativo para consumidores adimplentes variou de 45,97% a 791,16% ao ano, entre as instituições financeiras, no período de cinco dias úteis encerrados em 18 de julho. Entre os cinco maiores bancos do país (Banco do Brasil, Caixa, Itaú-Unibanco, Bradesco e Santander), a taxa vai de 168,8% a 297,46% ao ano, nesse período.

Segundo o BC, as taxas de juros diferem entre clientes de uma mesma instituição financeira e variam de acordo com fatores de risco envolvidos nas operações, como o valor, o histórico e a situação cadastral de cada cliente e o prazo da operação.

Em junho, o consumidor adimplente (regular) pagou taxa média de 261,1% ao ano, com aumento de 18,1 pontos percentuais em relação a maio. Já a taxa cobrada dos consumidores que não pagaram ou atrasaram o pagamento mínimo da fatura (rotativo não regular) caiu 32,8 pontos percentuais, chegando a 313,3% ao ano.

Ao divulgar o relatório sobre crédito de junho, no final do mês passado, o chefe do Departamento de Estatísticas do BC, Fernando Rocha, informou, sem citar os nomes, que duas instituições financeiras elevaram os juros do rotativo regular, o que aumentou a taxa média de todos os bancos pesquisados pelo BC.

Os juros subiram mesmo com taxa básica de juros, a Selic, no menor nível histórico (6,5% ao ano) e inadimplência em queda. Rocha afirmou que o mercado é livre para definir os juros. “Estamos tratando aqui do mercado de crédito de taxas livres. É um mercado competitivo em que as taxas são fixadas pelas próprias instituições”, disse Rocha.

Em junho, o total de concessões de crédito livre (empréstimos em que os bancos têm autonomia para aplicar dinheiro captado no mercado e definir as taxas de juros) para pessoas físicas chegou a R$ 150,8 bilhões. Desse total, R$ 15,260 bilhões foram do rotativo do cartão de crédito. A maior parte das concessões do rotativo é do crédito não regular: R$ 8,833 bilhões. No caso do cheque especial, as concessões chegaram a R$ 30,721 bilhões. A taxa do cheque especial chegou a 304,9% ao ano, em junho.

O rotativo do cartão é o crédito tomado pelo consumidor quando paga menos que o valor integral da fatura do cartão. O crédito rotativo dura 30 dias. Desde junho, clientes inadimplentes no rotativo do cartão de crédito passaram a pagar a mesma taxa de juros dos consumidores regulares. Até a nova regra entrar em vigor, quem não pagava pelo menos o valor mínimo da fatura em dia caía na modalidade de rotativo não regular, com taxa de juros mais cara que a cobrada dos clientes adimplentes (regulares).

Pela nova regra, a taxa de juros do rotativo passa a ser única, tanto para inadimplentes quanto para adimplentes. Mas as instituições podem cobrar multa e juros de mora, por atraso, como ocorre em qualquer outra operação de crédito, no caso de inadimplência.



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